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Proactive Coping

Esther Greenglass, Ralf Schwarzer, & Steffen Taubert, 1999

  1. I am a "take charge" person.
  2. I try to let things work out on their own. (–)
  3. After attaining a goal, I look for another, more challenging one.
  4. I like challenges and beating the odds.
  5. I visualize my dreams and try to achieve them.
  6. Despite numerous setbacks, I usually succeed in getting what I want.
  7. I try to pinpoint what I need to succeed.
  8. I always try to find a way to work around obstacles; nothing really stops me.
  9. I often see myself failing so I don't get my hopes up too high. (–)
  10. When I apply for a position, I imagine myself filling it.
  11. I turn obstacles into positive experiences.
  12. If someone tells me I can't do something, you can be sure I will do it.
  13. When I experience a problem, I take the initiative in resolving it.
  14. When I have a problem, I usually see myself in a no-win situation. (–)

Note: (–) indicates the item has to be reversed.
Response format: (1) not at all true, (2) barely true, (3) moderately true, (4) exactly true
This test may only be used by scientists or for private purpose.

Title of Scale Given to Respondents: Reactions to Daily Events Questionnaire


"The following statements deal with reactions you may have to various situations. Indicate how true each of these statements is depending on how you feel about the situation. Do this by checking the most appropriate box."

The full 55-Item PCI is available here

In a sample of N = 443 persons the scale yielded correlations with general perceived self-efficacy beliefs of r = .73 and Self-Regulation of r = .55.


Diehl, M., Semegon, A. B. & Schwarzer, R. (2006). Assessing Attention Control in Goal Pursuit: A Component of Dispositional Self-Regulation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86 (3), 306-317.

Luszczynka, A., Diehl, M., Gutiérrez-Doῆa, B., Kuusinen, P., Schwarzer, R. (2004). Measuring one component of dispositional self-regulation: attention control in goal pursuit. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 555-566.

Schwarzer, R. & Taubert, S. (2002). Tenacious goal pursuit and striving towards personal growth: proactive coping. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions and challenges (pp. 19-35). London: Oxford University Press.