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Proactive Coping Inventory

Esther Greenglass, Ralf Schwarzer, & Steffen Taubert, 1999


  1. I am a "take charge" person.
  2. I try to let things work out on their own. (-)
  3. After attaining a goal, I look for another, more challenging one.
  4. I like challenges and beating the odds.
  5. I visualise my dreams and try to achieve them.
  6. Despite numerous setbacks, I usually succeed in getting what I want.
  7. I try to pinpoint what I need to succeed.
  8. I always try to find a way to work around obstacles; nothing really stops me.
  9. I often see myself failing so I don't get my hopes up too high. (-)
  10. When I apply for a position, I imagine myself filling it.
  11. I turn obstacles into positive experiences.
  12. If someone tells me I can't do something, you can be sure I will do it.
  13. When I experience a problem, I take the initiative in resolving it.
  14. When I have a problem, I usually see myself in a no-win situation. (-)


  1. I imagine myself solving difficult problems.
  2. Rather than acting impulsively, I usually think of various ways to solve a problem.
  3. In my mind I go through many different scenarios in order to prepare myself for different outcomes.
  4. I tackle a problem by thinking about realistic alternatives.
  5. When I have a problem with my co-workers, friends, or family, I imagine beforehand how I will deal with them successfully.
  6. Before tackling a difficult task I imagine success scenarios.
  7. I take action only after thinking carefully about a problem.
  8. I imagine myself solving a difficult problem before I actually have to face it.
  9. I address a problem from various angles until I find the appropriate action.
  10. When there are serious misunderstandings with co-workers, family members or friends, I practice before how I will deal with them.
  11. I think about every possible outcome to a problem before tackling it.


  1. I often find ways to break down difficult problems into manageable components.
  2. I make a plan and follow it.
  3. I break down a problem into smaller parts and do one part at a time.
  4. I make lists and try to focus on the most important things first.


  1. I plan for future eventualities.
  2. Rather than spending every cent I make, I like to save for a rainy day.
  3. I prepare for adverse events.
  4. Before disaster strikes I am well-prepared for its consequences.
  5. I plan my strategies to change a situation before I act.
  6. I develop my job skills to protect myself against unemployment.
  7. I make sure my family is well taken care of to protect them from adversity in the future.
  8. I think ahead to avoid dangerous situations.
  9. I plan strategies for what I hope will be the best possible outcome.
  10. I try to manage my money well in order to avoid being destitute in old age.      


  1. When solving my own problems other people's advice can be helpful.
  2. I try to talk and explain my stress in order to get feedback from my friends.
  3. Information I get from others has often helped me deal with my problems.
  4. I can usually identify people who can help me develop my own solutions to problems.
  5. I ask others what they would do in my situation.
  6. Talking to others can be really useful because it provides another perspective on the problem.
  7. Before getting messed up with a problem I'll call a friend to talk about it.
  8. When I am in trouble I can usually work out something with the help of others.


  1. If I am depressed I know who I can call to help me feel better.
  2. Others help me feel cared for.
  3. I know who can be counted on when the chips are down.
  4. When I'm depressed I get out and talk to others.
  5. I confide my feelings in others to build up and maintain close relationships.    


  1. When I have a problem I like to sleep on it.
  2. If I find a problem too difficult sometimes I put it aside until I'm ready to deal with it.
  3. When I have a problem I usually let it simmer on the back burner for a while.

Note: (–) indicates the item has to be reversed.
Response format 1 “not at all true, 2 “barely true”, 3 “somewhat true”, 4 “completely true”.
This test may only be used by scientists or for private purpose.


Title of Scale Given to Respondents: Reactions to Daily Events Questionnaire

“The following statements deal with reactions you may have to various situations. Indicate how true each of these statements is depending on how you feel about the situation. Do this by checking the most appropriate box.”

 Description of the Seven Subscales



Greenglass, E. (2002). Proactive coping. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, vision, and challenges (pp. 37–62). London: Oxford University Press.

Schwarzer, R. & Taubert, S. (2002). Tenacious goal pursuit and striving towards personal growth: proactive coping. In E. Frydenberg
(Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions and challenges (pp. 19-35). London: Oxford University Press.